Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of Bacteriology


Geisel School of Medicine


Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen capable of group behaviors, including biofilm formation and swarming motility. These group behaviors are regulated by both the intracellular signaling molecule c-di-GMP and acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing systems. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) system also contributes to the regulation of swarming motility. Specifically, our data indicate that 2-heptyl-4-quinolone (HHQ), a precursor of PQS, likely induces the production of the phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), which in turn acts via an as-yet-unknown downstream mechanism to repress swarming motility. We show that this HHQ- and PCA-dependent swarming repression is apparently independent of changes in global levels of c-di-GMP, suggesting complex regulation of this group behavior.



Original Citation

Ha DG, Merritt JH, Hampton TH, Hodgkinson JT, Janecek M, Spring DR, Welch M, O'Toole GA. 2-Heptyl-4-quinolone, a precursor of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal molecule, modulates swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol. 2011 Dec;193(23):6770-80. doi: 10.1128/JB.05929-11. Epub 2011 Sep 30. PMID: 21965567; PMCID: PMC3232867.