Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Molecular and Cellular Biology


Geisel School of Medicine


Two phorbol ester-inducible elements (beta E2 and beta E3) within the human T-cell receptor beta gene enhancer each contain consensus binding sites for the Ets and core binding factor (CBF) transcription factor families. Recombinant Ets-1 and purified CBF bound individually to beta E2 and beta E3, in which the Ets and core sites are directly adjacent. In this report, we show that CBF and Ets-1 bind together to beta E2 and beta E3 and that Ets-1-CBF-DNA complexes are favored over the binding of either protein alone to beta E2. Formation of Ets-1-CBF-DNA complexes increased the affinity of Ets-1-DNA interactions and decreased the rate of dissociation of CBF from DNA. Ets-1-CBF-DNA complexes were not observed when either the Ets or core site was mutated. The spatial requirements for the cooperative interaction of Ets-1 and CBF were analyzed by oligonucleotide mutagenesis and binding site selection experiments. Core and Ets sites were coselected, and there appeared to be little constraint on the relative orientation and spacing of the two sites. These results demonstrate that CBF and Ets-1 form a high-affinity DNA-binding complex when both of their cognate sites are present and that the relative spacing and orientation of the two sites are unimportant. Ets and core sites are found in several T-cell-specific enhancers, suggesting that this interaction is of general importance in T-cell-specific transcription.

Original Citation

Wotton D, Ghysdael J, Wang S, Speck NA, Owen MJ. Cooperative binding of Ets-1 and core binding factor to DNA. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14(1):840-850. doi:10.1128/mcb.14.1.840