Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Molecular and Cellular Biology


Geisel School of Medicine


To gain further insight into the role of Raf-1 in normal cell growth, c-raf-1 mRNA expression, Raf-1 protein production, and Raf-1-associated kinase activity in normal human T cells were analyzed. In contrast to the constitutive expression of Raf-1 in continuously proliferating cell lines, c-raf-1 mRNA and Raf-1 protein levels were barely detectable in freshly isolated G0 T lymphocytes. Previous work with fibroblasts has suggested that Raf-1 plays a signaling role in the G0-G1 phase transition. In T cells, triggering via the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex (TCR/CD3) resulted in an approximately fourfold increase in c-raf-1 mRNA. In addition, the promotion of G1 progression by interleukin 2 (IL-2) was associated with a 5- to 10-fold immediate/early induction of c-raf-1 mRNA, resulting in up to a 12-fold increase in Raf-1 protein expression. TCR/CD3 activation did not alter the phosphorylation state of Raf-1, whereas interleukin 2 receptor stimulation resulted in a rapid increase in the phosphorylation state of a subpopulation of Raf-1 molecules progressively increasing throughout G1. These findings were complemented by assays for Raf-1-associated kinase activity which revealed a gradual accumulation of serine and threonine autokinase activity in Raf-1 immunoprecipitates during G1, which remained elevated throughout DNA replication.

Original Citation

Zmuidzinas A, Mamon HJ, Roberts TM, Smith KA. Interleukin-2-triggered Raf-1 expression, phosphorylation, and associated kinase activity increase through G1 and S in CD3-stimulated primary human T cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11(5):2794-2803. doi:10.1128/mcb.11.5.2794