Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Optics Express


Thayer School of Engineering


A non-contact localized spectroscopic imaging platform has been developed and optimized to scan 1 x 1 cm² square regions of surgically resected breast tissue specimens with ~150-micron resolution. A color corrected, image-space telecentric scanning design maintained a consistent sampling geometry and uniform spot size across the entire imaging field. Theoretical modeling in ZEMAX allowed estimation of the spot size, which is equal at both the center and extreme positions of the field with ~5% variation across the designed waveband, indicating excellent color correction. The spot sizes at the center and an extreme field position were also measured experimentally using the standard knife-edge technique and were found to be within ~8% of the theoretical predictions. Highly localized sampling offered inherent insensitivity to variations in background absorption allowing direct imaging of local scattering parameters, which was validated using a matrix of varying concentrations of Intralipid and blood in phantoms. Four representative, pathologically distinct lumpectomy tissue specimens were imaged, capturing natural variations in tissue scattering response within a given pathology. Variations as high as 60% were observed in the average reflectance and relative scattering power images, which must be taken into account for robust classification performance. Despite this variation, the preliminary data indicates discernible scatter power contrast between the benign vs malignant groups, but reliable discrimination of pathologies within these groups would require investigation into additional contrast mechanisms.



Original Citation

Krishnaswamy V, Laughney AM, Wells WA, Paulsen KD, Pogue BW. Scanning in situ spectroscopy platform for imaging surgical breast tissue specimens. Opt Express. 2013 Jan 28;21(2):2185-94. doi: 10.1364/OE.21.002185. PMID: 23389199; PMCID: PMC3601741.