The plant hormone ethylene regulates growth and development as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Over the last few decades, key elements involved in ethylene signal transduction have been identified through genetic approaches, these elements defining a pathway that extends from initial ethylene perception at the endoplasmic reticulum to changes in transcriptional regulation within the nucleus. Here, we present our current understanding of ethylene signal transduction, focusing on recent developments that support a model with overlapping and non-overlapping roles for members of the ethylene receptor family. We consider the evidence supporting this model for sub-functionalization within the receptor family, and then discuss mechanisms by which such a sub-functionalization may occur. To this end, we consider the importance of receptor interactions in modulating their signal output and how such interactions vary in the receptor family. In addition, we consider evidence indicating that ethylene signal output by the receptors involves both phosphorylation-dependent and phosphorylation-independent mechanisms. We conclude with a current model for signalling by the ethylene receptors placed within the overall context of ethylene signal transduction.
Shakeel, Samina N.; Wang, Xiaomin; Binder, Brad M.; and Schaller, G. Eric, "Mechanisms of Signal Transduction by Ethylene: Overlapping and Non-Overlapping Signalling Roles in a Receptor Family" (2013). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 1577.