Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America


Geisel School of Medicine


The histone methyltransferase Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) is essential to maintain hematopoietic stem cells and is a leukemia protooncogene. Although clustered homeobox genes are well-characterized targets of MLL and MLL fusion oncoproteins, the range of Mll-regulated genes in normal hematopoietic cells remains unknown. Here, we identify and characterize part of the Mll-dependent transcriptional network in hematopoietic stem cells with an integrated approach by using conditional loss-of-function models, genomewide expression analyses, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and functional rescue assays. The Mll-dependent transcriptional network extends well beyond the previously appreciated Hox targets, is comprised of many characterized regulators of self-renewal, and contains target genes that are both dependent and independent of the MLL cofactor, Menin. Interestingly, PR-domain containing 16 emerged as a target gene that is uniquely effective at partially rescuing Mll-deficient hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. This work highlights the tissue-specific nature of regulatory networks under the control of MLL/Trithorax family members and provides insight into the distinctions between the participation of MLL in normal hematopoiesis and in leukemia.



Original Citation

Artinger EL, Mishra BP, Zaffuto KM, Li BE, Chung EK, Moore AW, Chen Y, Cheng C, Ernst P. An MLL-dependent network sustains hematopoiesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jul 16;110(29):12000-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1301278110. Epub 2013 Jun 6. PMID: 23744037; PMCID: PMC3718146.