Journal of Glaciology
Experiments on plate-like specimens have established that across-column cracks from within S2 (columnar) salt-water ice when compressed uniaxially along a direction inclined to the long axis of the grains. Wing cracks initiate from the across-column cracks and lengthen into axial splits when the ice is rapidly deformed; correspondingly; the macroscopic behavior changes from ductile to brittle. The across-column cracking is attributed to grain-boundary sliding, and the splitting to the suppression of crack-tip creep.
Schulson, E. M.; Qi, S.; Melton, J. S.; and Gratz, E. T., "Across-Column Cracks and Axial Splits in S2 Saline Ice under Compression" (1997). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 1773.