Journal of Glaciology
A power law relation between stress and strain rate of the form σ ∝ ε̇1/n was used to describe the response to strain rate of S1 ice loaded across the columns at -10°C. The rate exponent, n, decreased with increasing strain from about 4.6 at an observed peak on the load displacement curve to approximately 2.6 at a shortening of 2%. Analysis of these results and of the results of other authors on different forms of ice deformed at the same temperature suggests that the power law exponent, n, is proportional to Fc/Fg. The parameter Fc/Fg is the far-field basal dislocation climb force divided by the glide force.
Manley, M. E. and Schulson, E. M., "On the Strain-Rate Sensitivity of Columnar Ice" (1997). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 1774.