Journal of Glaciology
The brittle failure of saline columnar ice was investigated under biaxial compression at and −10° and −40°C over the range 0 ≤ R A < 1 where R A is the ratio of the intermediate to major principal compressive stress. The major principal stress and the intermediate (confining) stress were orthogonal to the columnar axes (type-A confinement); both stresses and the c-axes of the grains were co-planar. The results confirm earlier work by Hausier (1981) and Timco and Frederking (1983, 1986) on saline ice and follow similar behavior to fresh-water columnar ice found by Smith and Schulson (1993) and Frederking (1977). Failure stress and failure mode are sensitive to the confinement and two regimes of behavior are found: the failure stress first rapidly increases with R A in the range 0 ≤ R A < R T and then tends to decrease for R A > R t. The transition stress ratio, R t changes from ≈0.2 at −10°C to ≈0.1 at −40°C. The failure mode changes from axial splitting to shear faulting in the loading plane for 0 < R A < R t. Above R t failure changes to a combined mode of splitting across the columns and shear faulting out of the loading plane. The failure-stress envelope is of a truncated Coulomb-type. Damage studies show wing cracks and local fragmentation of grains involving the brine pockets. The results are explained in terms of Coulombic sliding and Hertzian crack mechanics.
Smith, T. R. and Schulson, E. M., "Brittle Compressive Failure of Salt-Water Columnar Ice Under Biaxial Loading" (1993). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 1775.