Journal of Glaciology
Uniaxial compression experiments at –10°C at 10−3s−1 on fresh-water, granular ice have established through the use of high-speed photography that internal cracks nucleate preferentially away from the ice/platen (i/p) interface under conditions of i/p contraint, but near the interface under conditions of i/p expansion. Under conditions of little i/p interaction, cracks nucleate more or less randomly throughout the specimen. Correspondingly, the brittle-fracture strength decreases as the i/p interaction changes from compressive to tensile. These effects are explained in terms of the spatial variation of the maximum shear stress and the crack density.
Schulson, E. M.; Gies, M. C.; Lasonde, G. J.; and Nixon, W. A., "The Effect of the Specimen–Platen Interface on Internal Cracking and Brittle Fracture of Ice Under Compression: High-Speed Photography" (1989). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 1778.