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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society


We have analysed the XMM–Newton and Chandra data overlapping ∼16.5 deg2 of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, including ∼4.6 deg2 of proprietary XMM–Newton data that we present here. In total, 3362 unique X-ray sources are detected at high significance. We derive the XMM–Newton number counts and compare them with our previously reported Chandra logN–logS relations and other X-ray surveys. The Stripe 82 X-ray source lists have been matched to multiwavelength catalogues using a maximum likelihood estimator algorithm. We discovered the highest redshift (z = 5.86) quasar yet identified in an X-ray survey. We find 2.5 times more high-luminosity (Lx ≥ 1045 erg s−1) AGN than the smaller area Chandra and XMM–Newton survey of COSMOS and 1.3 times as many identified by XBoötes. Comparing the high-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN) we have identified with those predicted by population synthesis models, our results suggest that this AGN population is a more important component of cosmic black hole growth than previously appreciated. Approximately a third of the X-ray sources not detected in the optical are identified in the infrared, making them candidates for the elusive population of obscured high-luminosity AGN in the early universe.