Physical Review D - Particles and Fields
Through a detailed numerical investigation in three spatial dimensions, we demonstrate that long-lived time-dependent field configurations emerge dynamically during symmetry breaking in an expanding de Sitter spacetime. We investigate two situations: a single scalar field with a double-well potential and an SU(2) non-Abelian Higgs model. For the single scalar, we show that large-amplitude oscillon configurations emerge spontaneously and persist to contribute about 1.2% of the energy density of the Universe. We also show that for a range of parameters, oscillon lifetimes are enhanced by the expansion and that this effect is a result of parametric resonance. For the SU(2) case, we see about 4% of the final energy density in oscillons.
Gleiser, Marcelo; Graham, Noah; and Stamatopoulos, Nikitas, "Long-Lived Time-Dependent Remnants during Cosmological Symmetry Breaking: From Inflation to the Electroweak Scale" (2010). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 1949.