Physical Review D - Particles and Fields
We investigate the properties of Q-balls in d spatial dimensions. First, a generalized virial relation for these objects is obtained. We then focus on potentials V(ϕϕ†)=∑3n=1an(ϕϕ†)n, where an is a constant and n is an integer, obtaining variational estimates for their energies for arbitrary charge Q. These analytical estimates are contrasted with numerical results and their accuracy evaluated. Based on the results, we offer a simple criterion to classify large and small d-dimensional Q-balls for this class of potentials. A minimum charge is then computed and its dependence on spatial dimensionality is shown to scale as Qmin∼exp(d). We also briefly investigate the existence of Q-clouds in d dimensions.
Gleiser, Marcelo and Thorarinson, Joel, "Energy Landscape of D -Dimensional Q -Balls" (2006). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 1951.