Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation, and Cosmology
The spectral distortion of the cosmic microwave background blackbody spectrum in a radially inhomogeneous space-time, designed to exactly reproduce a ΛCDM expansion history along the past light cone, is shown to exceed the upper bound established by COBE-FIRAS by a factor of approximately 3700. This simple observational test helps uncover a slew of pathological features that lie hidden inside the past light cone, including a radially contracting phase at decoupling and, if followed to its logical extreme, a naked singularity at the radially inhomogeneous big bang.
Caldwell, R. R. and Maksimova, N. A., "Spectral Distortion in a Radially Inhomogeneous Cosmology" (2013). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 1962.