Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation, and Cosmology
If the conformal invariance of electromagnetism is broken during inflation, then primordial magnetic fields may be produced. If this symmetry breaking is generated by the coupling between electromagnetism and a scalar field—e.g. the inflaton, curvaton, or Ricci scalar—then these magnetic fields may be correlated with primordial density perturbations, opening a new window to the study of non-Gaussianity in cosmology. In order to illustrate, we couple electromagnetism to an auxiliary scalar field in a de Sitter background. We calculate the power spectra for scalar-field perturbations and magnetic fields, showing how a scale-free magnetic-field spectrum with rms amplitude of ∼nG at Mpc scales may be achieved. We explore the Fourier-space dependence of the cross correlation between the scalar field and magnetic fields, showing that the dimensionless amplitude, measured in units of the power spectra, can grow as large as ∼500HI/M, where HI is the inflationary Hubble constant and M is the effective mass scale of the coupling.
Caldwell, Robert R.; Motta, Leonardo; and Kamionkowski, Marc, "Correlation of Inflation-Produced Magnetic Fields with Scalar Fluctuations" (2011). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 1967.