Physical Review Letters
Dynamical relaxation of a pure electron plasma in a Malmberg-Penning trap is studied, comparing experiments, numerical simulations and statistical theories of weakly dissipative two-dimensional (2D) turbulence. Simulations confirm that the dynamics are approximated well by a 2D hydrodynamic model. Statistical analysis favors a theoretical picture of relaxation to a near-maximum entropy state with constrained energy, circulation, and angular momentum. This provides evidence that 2D electron fluid relaxation in a turbulent regime is governed by principles of maximum entropy.
Rodgers, D. J.; Servidio, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Montgomery, D. C.; Mitchell, T. B.; and Aziz, T., "Hydrodynamic Relaxation of an Electron Plasma to a Near-Maximum Entropy State" (2009). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 2007.