Physical Review Letters
Numerical solution of two-dimensional incompressible hydrodynamics shows that states of a near-minimal ratio of enstrophy to energy can be attained in times short compared with the flow decay time, confirming the simplest turbulent selective decay conjecture, and suggesting that coherent vortex structures do not terminate nonlinear processes. After all possible vortex mergers occur, the vorticity attains a particlelike character, suggested by the late-time similarity of the streamlines to Ewald potential contours.
Matthaeus, William H.; Stribling, W. Troy; Martinez, Daniel; Oughton, Sean; and Montgomery, David, "Selective Decay And Coherent Vortices in Two-Dimensional Incompressible Turbulence" (1991). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 2022.