Physics Letters, B
If our Universe is a three-brane embedded in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime, in which matter is confined to the brane and gravity inhabits an infinite bulk space, then the causal propagation of luminous and gravitational signals is in general different. A gravitational signal traveling between two points on the brane can take a “shortcut” through the bulk, and appear quicker than a photon traveling between the same two points along a geodesic on the brane. Similarly, in a given time interval, a gravitational signal can propagate farther than a luminous signal. We quantify this effect, and analyze the impact of these shortcuts through the fifth dimension on cosmology.
Caldwell, Robert and Langlois, David, "Shortcuts in the Fifth Dimension" (2001). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 2030.