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SIAM Journal on Computing


This paper presents asymptotically equal lower and upper bounds for the number of parallel I/O operations required to perform bit-matrix-multiply/complement (BMMC) permutations on the Parallel Disk Model proposed by Vitter and Shriver. A BMMC permutation maps a source index to a target index by an affine transformation over GF(2), where the source and target indices are treated as bit vectors. The class of BMMC permutations includes many common permutations, such as matrix transposition (when dimensions are powers of 2), bit-reversal permutations, vector-reversal permutations, hypercube permutations, matrix reblocking, Gray-code permutations, and inverse Gray-code permutations. The upper bound improves upon the asymptotic bound in the previous best known BMMC algorithm and upon the constant factor in the previous best known bit-permute/complement (BPC) permutation algorithm. The algorithm achieving the upper bound uses basic linear-algebra techniques to factor the characteristic matrix for the BMMC permutation into a product of factors, each of which characterizes a permutation that can be performed in one pass over the data.

The factoring uses new subclasses of BMMC permutations: memoryload-dispersal (MLD) permutations and their inverses. These subclasses extend the catalog of one-pass permutations.

Although many BMMC permutations of practical interest fall into subclasses that might be explicitly invoked within the source code, this paper shows how to quickly detect whether a given vector of target addresses specifies a BMMC permutation. Thus, one can determine efficiently at run time whether a permutation to be performed is BMMC and then avoid the general-permutation algorithm and save parallel I/Os by using the BMMC permutation algorithm herein.