Signs - Journal of Women in Culture and Society
Black women have long recognized the special circumstances of our lives in the United States: the commonalities that we share with all women, as well as the bonds that connect us to the men of our race. We have also realized that the interactive oppressions that circumscribe our lives provide a distinctive context for black womanhood. For us, the notion of double jeopardy is not a new one. Near the end of the nineteenth century, Anna Julia Cooper, who was born a slave and later became an educator and earned a Ph.D., often spoke and wrote of the double enslavement of black women and of our being "confronted by both a woman question and a race problem."' In 1904, Mary Church Terrell, the first president of the National Association of Colored Women, wrote, "Not only are colored women... handicapped on account of their sex, but they are almost everywhere baffled and mocked because of their race. Not only because they are women, but because they are colored women.
King, Deborah K., "Multiple Jeopardy, Multiple Consciousness: The Context of a Black Feminist Ideology" (1988). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 2073.