The Astrophysical Journal
We present new HST optical imagery as well as new UV and IR spectroscopic data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively, of the halo planetary nebula DdDm-1. For the first time we present a resolved image of this object, which indicates that the morphology of DdDm-1 can be described as two orthogonal elliptical components in the central part surrounded by an extended halo. The extent of the emission is somewhat larger than was previously reported in the literature. We combine the spectral data with our own previously published optical measurements to derive nebular abundances of He, C, N, O, Ne, Si, S, Cl, Ar, and Fe. The metallicity, as gauged by oxygen, is found to be 0.60 dex below the solar value, confirming DdDm-1's status as a halo PN. In addition, we find that Si and Fe are markedly underabundant, suggesting their depletion onto dust. The very low C/O ratio suggests that the chemistry of the nebula should be consistent with an oxygen-rich environment. With regard to the unexpectedly low S abundance relative to O often seen in PNe, we find that the sulfur abundance of DdDm-1 is only slightly below the value expected based on the normal lockstep behavior between S and O observed in H II regions and blue compact galaxies. We performed a photoionization model analysis from which we inferred a central star effective temperature and luminosity of 55,000 K and 1000 L☉, respectively, implying an initial progenitor mass of <1 >M☉. Finally, we report on a new radial velocity determination from echelle observations.
Henry, R. B. C.; Kwitter, K. B.; Dufour, R. J.; and Skinner, J. N., "A Multiwavelength Analysis of the Halo Planetary Nebula DdDm‐1" (2008). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 2246.