The Astrophysical Journal
Near-infrared observations are presented for five Type IIn supernovae (SN 1995N, SN 1997ab, SN 1998S, SN 1999Z, and SN 1999el) that exhibit strong infrared excesses at late times (t > 100 days). H- and K-band emission from these objects is dominated by a continuum that rises toward longer wavelengths. The data are interpreted as thermal emission from dust, probably situated in a preexisting circumstellar nebula. The IR luminosities implied by single-temperature blackbody fits are quite large, >1041-1042 ergs s-1, and the emission evolves slowly, lasting for years after maximum light. For SN 1995N, the integrated energy release via IR dust emission was ≈0.5-1 × 1050 ergs. A number of dust heating scenarios are considered, the most likely being an infrared echo powered by X-ray and UV emissions from the shock interaction with a dense circumstellar medium.
Gerardy, Christopher L.; Fesen, Robert A.; Nomoto, Ken-ichi; and Garnavich, Peter M., "Extraordinary Late‐Time Infrared Emission of Type IIn Supernovae" (2002). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 2263.