American Economic Review
Title I of the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act explicitly directed more federal aid for K-12 education to poorer areas for the first time in US history, with a goal of promoting regional convergence in school spending. Using newly collected data, we find some evidence that Title I narrowed the gap in per-pupil school spending between richer and poorer states in the short- to medium-run. However, the program was small relative to then-existing poverty gaps in school spending; even in the absence of crowd-out by local or state governments, the program could have reduced the gap by only 15 percent.
Cascio, Elizabeth U. and Reber, Sarah, "The Poverty Gap in School Spending Following the Introduction of Title I" (2013). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 2388.