IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society
The pinned photodiode is the primary photodetector structure used in most CCD and CMOS image sensors. This paper reviews the development, physics, and technology of the pinned photodiode.
Fossum, Eric R. and Hondongwa, Donald B., "A Review of the Pinned Photodiode for CCD and CMOS Image Sensors" (2014). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 2423.