Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

The Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series


Department of Physics and Astronomy


A deep optical survey of the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant has revealed dozens of new emissionline ejecta knots out beyond the remnantÏs bright nebular shell. Most of the newly detected knots exhibit a 4500È 7500 A. spectrum dominated by [N II ] jj 6548,6583 line emissions. After accounting for possible decelerations, the estimated space velocities for about four dozen of these [N II ] knots suggest a nearly isotropic ^ 10,000 km s~1 ejection velocity. However, a small group along the southwestern limb show signi‹cantly higher velocities of up to 12,000 km s~1 . Over 20 outlying O] S emission knots were also discovered, mostly along the remnantÏs western limb. These knots have optical spectral properties like those seen in the main shellÏs metal-rich .. fast-moving knots ÏÏ but with much higher estimated space velocities of between 7600 and 12,600 km s~1 . Discovery of these knots means that the remnantÏs highest-velocity, O] S debris are not con‹ned to just the remnantÏs northeast .. jet.ÏÏ [S II ] jj 6716,6731 emissions dominate the spectra of these knots above an expansion velocity of 11,000 km s~1 . A few mixed emission knots,ÏÏ which show both strong nitrogen and sulfur line emissions, were also detected along the remnantÏs western rim. The properties of these outlying debris knots suggest a turbulent supernova expansion in which the innermost S-rich layers were ejected up through overlying material in certain regions, attaining ‹nal outward velocities greater than the starÏs N and He-rich surface layers. The detection of such high-velocity, sulfur-rich ejecta only along the remnantÏs northeast and southwest limbs further suggests an asymmetric expansion, possibly bipolar. A turbulent expansion may help explain the creation of the observed mixed emission knots. It is unclear, however, if mixed knots represent truly microscopically mixed debris or are simply small, comoving clusters of chemically distinct ejecta.



Original Citation

Robert A. Fesen 2001 ApJS 133 161