Document Type

Article

Publication Date

10-20-2014

Publication Title

PloS One

Abstract

Background: Cross-sectional and retrospective studies have associated major depressive disorder with glial activation and injury as well as blood–brain barrier disruption, but these associations have not been assessed prospectively. Here, we aimed to determine the relationship between changes in depressive symptom severity and in blood levels of S-100 calcium- binding protein B (S-100B), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 following an inflammatory challenge.

Methods: Fifty unselected participants were recruited from a randomized, controlled trial comparing coronary artery bypass grafting procedures performed with versus without cardiopulmonary bypass for the risk of neurocognitive decline. Depressive symptom severity was measured at baseline, discharge, and six-month follow-up using the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). The primary outcome of the present biomarker study was acute change in depressive symptom severity, defined as the intra-subject difference between baseline and discharge BDI-II scores. Blood biomarker levels were determined at baseline and 2 days postoperative.

Results: Changes in S-100B levels correlated positively with acute changes in depressive symptom severity (Spearman r, 0.62; P=0.0004) and accounted for about one-fourth of their observed variance (R2, 0.23; P=0.0105). This association remained statistically significant after adjusting for baseline S-100B levels, age, weight, body-mass index, or b-blocker use, but not baseline BDI-II scores (P = 0.064). There was no statistically significant association between the primary outcome and baseline S-100B levels, baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein or interleukin-6 levels, or changes in high-sensitivity C- reactive protein or interleukin-6 levels. Among most participants, levels of all three biomarkers were normal at baseline and markedly elevated at 2 days postoperative.

Conclusions: Acute changes in depressive symptom severity were specifically associated with incremental changes in S- 100B blood levels, largely independent of covariates associated with either. These findings support the hypothesis that glial activation and injury and blood–brain barrier disruption can be mechanistically linked to acute exacerbation of depressive symptoms in some individuals.

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0111110

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