PV1 protein is an essential component of stomatal and fenestral diaphragms, which are formed at the plasma membrane of endothelial cells (ECs), on structures such as caveolae, fenestrae and transendothelial channels. Knockout of PV1 in mice results in in utero and perinatal mortality. To be able to interpret the complex PV1 knockout phenotype, it is critical to determine whether the formation of diaphragms is the only cellular role of PV1. We addressed this question by measuring the effect of complete and partial removal of structures capable of forming diaphragms on PV1 protein level. Removal of caveolae in mice by knocking out caveolin-1 or cavin-1 resulted in a dramatic reduction of PV1 protein level in lungs but not kidneys. The magnitude of PV1 reduction correlated with the abundance of structures capable of forming diaphragms in the microvasculature of these organs. The absence of caveolae in the lung ECs did not affect the transcription or translation of PV1, but it caused a sharp increase in PV1 protein internalization rate via a clathrin- and dynamin-independent pathway followed by degradation in lysosomes. Thus, PV1 is retained on the cell surface of ECs by structures capable of forming diaphragms, but undergoes rapid internalization and degradation in the absence of these structures, suggesting that formation of diaphragms is the only role of PV1.
Tkachenko, Eugene; Tse, Dan; Sideleva, Olga; Deharvengt, Sophie J.; Luciano, Marcus R.; Xu, Yan; McGarry, Caitlin L.; Chidlow, John; Pilch, Paul F.; Sessa, William C.; Toomre, Derek K.; and Stan, Radu V., "Caveolae, Fenestrae and Transendothelial Channels Retain PV1 on the Surface of Endothelial Cells" (2012). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 2582.