Document Type

Article

Publication Date

1-2005

Publication Title

Infection and Immunity

Abstract

Having previously shown that CCL20/macrophage inflammatory protein 3 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) are released by polarized primary rat uterine epithelial cells (UEC) in response to Escherichia coli but not to Lactobacillus rhamnosus , we sought to determine if epithelial cells are responsive to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP), including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and Pam 3 Cys, a bacterial lipoprotein analog. Epithelial cells were grown to confluence on Nunc cell culture inserts prior to apical treatment with PAMPs. In response to LPS, LTA, and Pam 3 Cys (EMC Microcollection GmbH, Tu ̈- bingen, Germany), CCL20 levels increased (4- to 10-fold) while PAMPs caused increased TNF-alpha (1- to 4-fold) in the medium collected after 24 h of incubation. Both apical and basolateral secretion of CCL20 and * increased in response to PAMPs, but treatments had no effect on cell viability and integrity, as measured by transepithelial resistance. Time course studies of CCL20 and TNF-alpha release in response to Pam 3 Cys and LPS indicated that CCL20 release peaked between 2 an d 4 h after treatment, whereas TNF-alpha release was gradual over the length of the incubation. Freeze-thaw and cell lysis experiments, along with actinomycin D studies, suggested that CCL20 and TNF-alpha are synthesized in response to PAMP stimulation. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that E. coli and selected PAMPs have direct effects on the production of CCL20 and TNF-alpha without affecting cell integrity. Since CCL20 is known to be both chemotactic and antimicrobial, the increase in apical and basolateral release by UEC in response to PAMPs suggests a new mechanism of innate immune protection in the female reproductive tract.

DOI

10.1128/IAI.73.1.476-484.2005

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