The Astrophysical Journal
The optical light curve of the energetic γ-ray burst GRB 991216 is consistent with jetlike behavior in which a power-law decay steepens from t-1.22+-0.04 at early times to t-1.53 +- 0.05 in a gradual transition at around 2 days. The derivation of the late-time decay slope takes into account the constant contribution of a host or intervening galaxy, which was measured 110 days after the event at R = 24.56 +- 0.14, although the light curve deviates from a single power law whether or not a constant term is included. The early-time spectral energy distribution of the afterglow can be described as Fv α v-0.74 +- 0.05 or flatter between optical and X-ray, which, together with the slow initial decay, is characteristic of standard adiabatic evolution in a uniformly dense medium. Assuming that a reported absorption-line redshift of 1.02 is correct, the apparent isotropic energy of 6.7 X 1053 ergs is reduced by a factor of ~=200 in the jet model, and the initial half-opening angle is ~=6°. GRB 991216 is the third good example of a jetlike afterglow (following GRB 990123 and GRB 990510), supporting a trend in which the apparently most energetic γ-ray events have the narrowest collimation and a uniform interstellar medium environment. This, plus the absence of evidence for supernovae associated with jetlike afterglows, suggests that these events may originate from a progenitor in which angular momentum plays an important role but massive stellar envelope or wind does not, e.g., in the coalescence of a compact binary.
Halpern, J. P.; Uglesich, R.; Mirabal, N.; Kassin, S.; Thorstenson, J.; Keel, W. C.; Diercks, A.; Bloom, J. S.; Harrison, F.; Mattox, J.; and Eracleous, M., "GRB 991216 Joins the Jet Set: Discovery and Monitoring of Its Optical Afterglow" (2000). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 2747.