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PloS One


Conventional methods to induce tolerance in humans have met with limited success. Hence, efforts to redirect tolerogen uptake using reovirus adhesin, protein sigma 1 (pσ1), may circumvent these shortcomings based upon the recent finding that when reovirus pσ1 is engineered to deliver chicken ovalbumin (OVA) mucosally, tolerance is obtained, even with a single dose. To test whether single-dose tolerance can be induced to treat EAE, proteolipid protein (PLP130–151) was genetically fused to OVA to pσ1 (PLP:OVA-pσ1) and shown to significantly ameliorate EAE, suppressing proinflammatory cytokines by IL-10+ forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)+ CD25+CD4+ Treg and IL-4+CD25CD4+ Th2 cells. IL-10R or IL-4 neutralization reversed protection to EAE conferred by PLP:OVA-pσ1, and adoptive transfer of Ag-specific Treg or Th2 cells restored protection against EAE in recipients. Upon assessment of each relative participant, functional inactivation of CD25 impaired PLP:OVA-pσ1's protective capacity, triggering TGF-β-mediated inflammation; however, concomitant inactivation of TGF-β and CD25 reestablished PLP:OVA-pσ1-mediated protection by IL-28-producing FoxP3+CD25CD4+ T cells. Thus, pσ1-based therapy can resolve EAE independently of or dependently upon CD25 and assigns IL-28 as an alternative therapy for autoimmunity.



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