Journal of Glaciology
A series of experiments was undertaken to determine the origin of filaments found in grain boundaries and impurity spots found in grain interiors of polar ice during observation in the scanning electron microscope. It is shown that although the filaments are artifacts, they demonstrate the presence of impurities segregated to the grain boundary planes. It is also demonstrated that the impurities observed in the grain interior reside there and were not transported from the grain boundaries during specimen preparation or observation.
Baker, Ian and Cullen, Daniel, "SEM/EDS Observations of Impurities in Polar Ice: Artifacts or Not?" (2003). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles. 3192.