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Journal of Glaciology


The mechanical behavior and microstructural evolution of laboratory-prepared, particle-free fresh-water ice and ice with 1 wt.% (~0.43 vol.%) silt-sized particles were investigated under creep with a stress level of 1.45 MPa at −10°C. The particles were present both within the grains and along the grain boundaries. The creep rates of specimens with particles were always higher than those of particle-free ice. Dynamic recrystallization occurred for both sets of specimens, with new grains nucleating along grain boundaries in the early stages of creep. The ice with particles showed a higher nucleation rate. This resulted in a smaller average grain-size for the ice with particles after a given creep strain. Fabric studies indicated that ice with particles showed a more random orientation of c axes after creep to ~10% strain than the particle-free ice.