Bulletin of the World Health Organization
The study compares the effectiveness of two strategies for distributing azithromycin in an area with mild-to-moderate active trachoma in Nepal.
The two strategies investigated were the use of azithromycin for 1) mass treatment of all children, or 2) targeted treatment of only those children who were found to be clinically active, as well as all members of their household.
Mass treatment of children was slightly more effective in terms of decreasing the prevalence of clinically active trachoma (estimated by clinical examination) and of chlamydial infection (estimated by DNA amplification tests), although neither result was statistically significant.
Both strategies appeared to be effective in reducing the prevalence of clinically active trachoma and infection six months after the treatment. Antibiotic treatment reduced the prevalence of chlamydial infection more than it did the level of clinically active trachoma.
Holm, Susan Osaki; Jha, Hem C.; Bhatta, Ramesh C.; Chaudhary, J.S. P.; Thapa, B. B.; Davis, Dale; Pokhrel, Ram Prasad; Yinghui, Miao; Zegans, Michael; Schachter, Julius; Frick, Kevin D.; Tapert, Lisa; and Leitman, Thomas M., "Comparison of Two Azithromycin Distribution Strategies for Controlling Trachoma in Nepal" (2001). Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship. 3631.