Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of Biomedical Optics


Thayer School of Engineering


Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence is studied as a contrast agent for noninvasive detection of murine glioma, using the fluorescence-to-transmission ratio measured through the cranium. Signals measured prior to administration of ALA are very similar between control animals, 9L-GFP, and U251 tumor-bearing animals. However, 2 h after ALA administration, the PpIX signal from both tumor-bearing groups is significantly higher than the control group (9L-GFP group p-value=0.016, and U251 group p-value=0.004, relative to the control group). The variance in signal from the 9L-GFP group is much larger than either the control group or the U251 group, which is consistent with higher intrinsic PpIX fluorescence heterogeneity as seen in situ at ex vivo analysis. Decreasing the skin PpIX fluorescence via intentional photobleaching using red light (635 nm) is examined as a tool for increasing PpIX contrast between the tumor-bearing and control groups. The red light bleaching is found to increase the ability to accurately quantify PpIX fluorescence in vivo, but decreases the specificity of detection between tumor-bearing and nontumor-bearing groups.



Original Citation

Gibbs-Strauss SL, O'Hara JA, Hoopes PJ, Hasan T, Pogue BW. Noninvasive measurement of aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence allowing detection of murine glioma in vivo. J Biomed Opt. 2009 Jan-Feb;14(1):014007. doi: 10.1117/1.3065543. PMID: 19256695; PMCID: PMC2799166.