Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of Biomedical Optics


Thayer School of Engineering


Highly localized reflectance measurements can be used to directly quantify scatter changes in tissues. We present a microsampling approach that is used to raster scan tumors to extract parameters believed to be related to the tissue ultrastructure. A confocal reflectance imager was developed to examine scatter changes across pathologically distinct regions within tumor tissues. Tissue sections from two murine tumors, AsPC-1 pancreas tumor and the Mat-LyLu Dunning prostate tumor, were imaged. After imaging, histopathology-guided region-of-interest studies of the images allowed analysis of the variations in scattering resulting from differences in tissue ultra-structure. On average, the median scatter power of tumor cells with high proliferation index (HPI) was about 26% less compared to tumor cells with low proliferation index (LPI). Necrosis exhibited the lowest scatter power signature across all the tissue types considered, with about 55% lower median scatter power than LPI tumor cells. Additionally, the level and maturity of the tumor's fibroplastic response was found to influence the scatter signal. This approach to scatter visualization of tissue ultrastructure in situ could provide a unique tool for guiding surgical resection, but this kind of interpretation into what the signal means relative to the pathology is required before proceeding to clinical studies.



Original Citation

Krishnaswamy V, Hoopes PJ, Samkoe KS, O'Hara JA, Hasan T, Pogue BW. Quantitative imaging of scattering changes associated with epithelial proliferation, necrosis, and fibrosis in tumors using microsampling reflectance spectroscopy. J Biomed Opt. 2009 Jan-Feb;14(1):014004. doi: 10.1117/1.3065540. PMID: 19256692; PMCID: PMC2813673.