Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Nucleic Acids Research


Geisel School of Medicine


Proper expression of the genes of the human β-globin gene locus requires the associated locus control region (LCR). Structurally, the LCR is defined by the presence of four domains of erythroid-specific chromatin structure. These domains, which have been characterized as DNase I hypersensitive sites (HSs), comprise the active elements of the LCR. The major focus of this research is to define the cis-acting elements which are required for the formation of these domains of unique chromatin structure. Our previous investigations on the formation of LCR HS4 demonstrated that NF-E2 and tandem, inverted GATA binding sites are required for the formation of the native HS. Similarly arranged NF-E2 and tandem GATA sites are present within the core regions of the other human LCR HSs and are evolutionarily conserved. Using site-directed mutagenesis of human HSs 2 and 3 we have tested the hypothesis that these NF-E2 and GATA sites are common requirements for the formation of all LCR HSs. We find that mutation of these elements, and particularly the GATA elements, results in a decrease or complete loss of DNase I hypersensitivity. These data imply the presence of common structural elements within the core of each LCR HS which are required for erythroid-specific chromatin structure reorganization.



Original Citation

Pomerantz O, Goodwin AJ, Joyce T, Lowrey CH. Conserved elements containing NF-E2 and tandem GATA binding sites are required for erythroid-specific chromatin structure reorganization within the human beta-globin locus control region. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26(24):5684-5691. doi:10.1093/nar/26.24.5684