Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of Radiation Research


Geisel School of Medicine


The effect of hyperoxygenation with carbogen (95% O2 + 5% CO2) inhalation on RIF-1 tumor pO2and its consequence on growth inhibition with fractionated radiotherapy is reported. The temporal changes in the tumor pO2 were assessed by in vivo Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) oximetry in mice breathing 30% O2 or carbogen and the tumors were irradiated with 4 Gy/day for 5 consecutive days; a protocol that emulates the clinical application of carbogen. The RIF-1 tumors were hypoxic with a tissue pO2 of 5–9 mmHg. Carbogen (CB) breathing significantly increased tumor pO2, with a maximum increase at 22.9–31.2 min on days 1–5, however, the magnitude of increase in pO2 declined on day 5. Radiotherapy during carbogen inhalation (CB/RT) resulted in a significant tumor growth inhibition from day 3 to day 6 as compared to 30%O2/RT and carbogen (CB/Sham RT) groups. The results provide unambiguous quantitative information on the effect of carbogen inhalation on tumor pO2 over the course of 5 days. Tumor growth inhibition in the CB/RT group confirms that the tumor oxygenation with carbogen was radiobiologically significant. Repeated tumor pO2 measurements by EPR oximetry can provide temporal information that could be used to improve therapeutic outcomes by scheduling doses at times of improved tumor oxygenation.



Original Citation

Hou H, Dong R, Lariviere JP, Mupparaju SP, Swartz HM, Khan N. Synergistic combination of hyperoxygenation and radiotherapy by repeated assessments of tumor pO2 with EPR oximetry. J Radiat Res. 2011;52(5):568-74. doi: 10.1269/jrr.11028. Epub 2011 Jul 29. PMID: 21799293; PMCID: PMC3955714.