Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Biomedical Optics Express


Thayer School of Engineering

Additional Department

Geisel School of Medicine


Cherenkov-excited luminescence scanned imaging (CELSI) is achieved with external beam radiotherapy to map out molecular luminescence intensity or lifetime in tissue. Just as in fluorescence microscopy, the choice of excitation geometry can affect the imaging time, spatial resolution and contrast recovered. In this study, the use of spatially patterned illumination was systematically studied comparing scan shapes, starting with line scan and block patterns and increasing from single beams to multiple parallel beams and then to clinically used treatment plans for radiation therapy. The image recovery was improved by a spatial-temporal modulation-demodulation method, which used the ability to capture simultaneous images of the excitation Cherenkov beam shape to deconvolve the CELSI images. Experimental studies used the multi-leaf collimator on a clinical linear accelerator (LINAC) to create the scanning patterns, and image resolution and contrast recovery were tested at different depths of tissue phantom material. As hypothesized, the smallest illumination squares achieved optimal resolution, but at the cost of lower signal and slower imaging time. Having larger excitation blocks provided superior signal but at the cost of increased radiation dose and lower resolution. Increasing the scan beams to multiple block patterns improved the performance in terms of image fidelity, lower radiation dose and faster acquisition. The spatial resolution was mostly dependent upon pixel area with an optimized side length near 38mm and a beam scan pitch of P = 0.33, and the achievable imaging depth was increased from 14mm to 18mm with sufficient resolving power for 1mm sized test objects. As a proof-of-concept, in-vivo tumor mouse imaging was performed to show 3D rendering and quantification of tissue pO2 with values of 5.6mmHg in a tumor and 77mmHg in normal tissue.




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Original Citation

Jia MJ, Bruza P, Jarvis LA, Gladstone DJ, Pogue BW. Multi-beam scan analysis with a clinical LINAC for high resolution Cherenkov-excited molecular luminescence imaging in tissue. Biomed Opt Express. 2018 Aug 14;9(9):4217-4234. doi: 10.1364/BOE.9.004217. PMID: 30615721; PMCID: PMC6157777.