Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Scientific Reports


Geisel School of Medicine


During a first-in-humans clinical trial investigating electron paramagnetic resonance tumor oximetry, a patient injected with the particulate oxygen sensor Printex ink was found to have unexpected fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in a dermal nodule via positron emission tomography (PET). This nodule co-localized with the Printex ink injection; biopsy of the area, due to concern for malignancy, revealed findings consistent with ink and an associated inflammatory reaction. Investigations were subsequently performed to assess the impact of oxygen sensors on FDG-PET/CT imaging. A retrospective analysis of three clinical tumor oximetry trials involving two oxygen sensors (charcoal particulates and LiNc-BuO microcrystals) in 22 patients was performed to evaluate FDG imaging characteristics. The impact of clinically used oxygen sensors (carbon black, charcoal particulates, LiNc-BuO microcrystals) on FDG-PET/CT imaging after implantation in rat muscle (n = 12) was investigated. The retrospective review revealed no other patients with FDG avidity associated with particulate sensors. The preclinical investigation found no injected oxygen sensor whose mean standard uptake values differed significantly from sham injections. The risk of a false-positive FDG-PET/CT scan due to oxygen sensors appears low. However, in the right clinical context the potential exists that an associated inflammatory reaction may confound interpretation.



Original Citation

Schaner, P.E., Tran, LBA., Zaki, B.I. et al. The impact of particulate electron paramagnetic resonance oxygen sensors on fluorodeoxyglucose imaging characteristics detected via positron emission tomography. Sci Rep 11, 4422 (2021).