Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Frontiers in Oncology


Geisel School of Medicine


Objective: The overall objective of this clinical study was to validate an implantable oxygen sensor, called the ‘OxyChip’, as a clinically feasible technology that would allow individualized tumor-oxygen assessments in cancer patients prior to and during hypoxia-modification interventions such as hyperoxygen breathing. Methods: Patients with any solid tumor at ≤3-cm depth from the skin-surface scheduled to undergo surgical resection (with or without neoadjuvant therapy) were considered eligible for the study. The OxyChip was implanted in the tumor and subsequently removed during standard-of-care surgery. Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) at the implant location was assessed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry. Results: Twenty-three cancer patients underwent OxyChip implantation in their tumors. Six patients received neoadjuvant therapy while the OxyChip was implanted. Median implant duration was 30 days (range 4–128 days). Forty-five successful oxygen measurements were made in 15 patients. Baseline pO2 values were variable with overall median 15.7 mmHg (range 0.6–73.1 mmHg); 33% of the values were below 10 mmHg. After hyperoxygenation, the overall median pO2 was 31.8 mmHg (range 1.5–144.6 mmHg). In 83% of the measurements, there was a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) response to hyperoxygenation. Conclusions: Measurement of baseline pO2 and response to hyperoxygenation using EPR oximetry with the OxyChip is clinically feasible in a variety of tumor types. Tumor oxygen at baseline differed significantly among patients. Although most tumors responded to a hyperoxygenation intervention, some were non-responders. These data demonstrated the need for individualized assessment of tumor oxygenation in the context of planned hyperoxygenation interventions to optimize clinical outcomes.



Original Citation

Schaner PE, Williams BB, Chen EY, Pettus JR, Schreiber WA, Kmiec MM, Jarvis LA, Pastel DA, Zuurbier RA, DiFlorio-Alexander RM, Paydarfar JA, Gosselin BJ, Barth RJ, Rosenkranz KM, Petryakov SV, Hou H, Tse D, Pletnev A, Flood AB, Wood VA, Hebert KA, Mosher RE, Demidenko E, Swartz HM and Kuppusamy P (2021). First-In-Human Study in Cancer Patients Establishing the Feasibility of Oxygen Measurements in Tumors Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance With the OxyChip. Front. Oncol. 11:743256. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2021.743256