Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated whole cell tuberculosis vaccine booster in adults primed with BCG: A randomized, controlled trial of DAR-901
Development of a tuberculosis vaccine to boost BCG is a major international health priority. SRL172, an inactivated whole cell booster derived from a non-tuberculous mycobacterium, is the only new vaccine against tuberculosis to have demonstrated efficacy in a Phase 3 trial. In the present study we sought to determine if a three-dose series of DAR-901 manufactured from the SRL172 master cell bank by a new, scalable method was safe and immunogenic.
We performed a single site, randomized, double-blind, controlled, Phase 1 dose escalation trial of DAR-901 at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in the United States. Healthy adult subjects age 18-65 with prior BCG immunization and a negative interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) were enrolled in cohorts of 16 subjects and randomized to three injections of DAR-901 (n = 10 per cohort), or saline placebo (n = 3 per cohort), or two injections of saline followed by an injection of BCG (n = 3 per cohort; 1-8 x 10(6) CFU). Three successive cohorts were enrolled representing DAR-901 at 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg per dose. Randomization was performed centrally and treatments were masked from staff and volunteers. Subsequent open label cohorts of HIV-negative/IGRA-positive subjects (n = 5) and HIV-positive subjects (n = 6) received three doses of 1 mg DAR-901. All subjects received three immunizations at 0, 2 and 4 months administered as 0.1 mL injections over the deltoid muscle alternating between right and left arms. The primary outcomes were safety and immunogenicity. Subjects were followed for 6 months after dose 3 for safety and had phlebotomy performed for safety studies and immune assays before and after each injection. Immune assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells included cell-mediated IFN-gamma. responses to DAR-901 lysate and to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) lysate; serum antibody to M. tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan was assayed by ELISA.
DAR-901 had an acceptable safety profile and was well-tolerated at all dose levels in all treated subjects. No serious adverse events were reported. Median (range) 7-day erythema and induration at the injection site for 1 mg DAR-901 were 10 (4-20) mm and 10 (4-16) mm, respectively, and for BCG, 30 (10-107) mm and 38 (15-55) mm, respectively. Three mild AEs, all headaches, were considered possibly related to DAR-901. No laboratory or vital signs abnormalities were related to immunization. Compared to pre-vaccination responses, three 1 mg doses of DAR-901 induced statistically significant increases in IFN-gamma. response to DAR-901 lysate and MTB lysate, and in antibody responses to M. tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan. Ten subjects who received 1 mg DAR-901 remained IFN-gamma. release assay (IGRA) negative after three doses of vaccine.
Conclusions A three-injection series of DAR-901 was well-tolerated, had an acceptable safety profile, and induced cellular and humoral immune responses to mycobacterial antigens. DAR-901 is advancing to efficacy trials.