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The Journal of Nutrition


Background: Many factors have been associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in observational studies, with variable consistency. However, less information is available on factors affecting the magnitude of changes in serum 25(OH)D resulting from vitamin D supplementation. Objective: This study aimed to identify factors associated with the serum 25(OH)D response to supplementation with 1000 IU cholecalciferol/d during the first year of a large, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled colorectal adenoma chemoprevention trial. Methods: Eligible older adults who were not vitamin D–deficient [serum 25(OH)D12 ng/mL] were randomly assigned in a modified 2 3 2 factorial design to 1 of 4 groups: daily 1000 IU cholecalciferol, 1200 mg Ca as carbonate, both, or placebo. Women could elect 2-group (calcium 6 cholecalciferol) random assignment. In secondary analyses, we used multivariable models to assess factors associated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations in all enrollees (n = 2753) and with relative changes in serum 25(OH)D after 1 y cholecalciferol supplementation among those randomly assigned (n = 2187). Results: In multivariable models, 8 factors accounted for 50% of the variability of proportional change in serum 25(OH)D after cholecalciferol supplementation. Larger increases were associated with being female (34.5% compared with 20.5%; P < 0.001) and with lower baseline serum 25(OH)D (P < 0.0001), optimal adherence to study pill intake (P = 0.0002), wearing long pants and sleeves during sun exposure (P = 0.0002), moderate activity level (P = 0.01), use of extra vitamin D–containing supplements during the trial (P = 0.03), and seasons of blood draw (P # 0.002). Several genetic polymorphisms were associated with baseline serum 25(OH)D and/or serum response, but these did not substantially increase the models of R2 values. Other factors, including body mass index, were associated with serum 25(OH)D at baseline but not with its response to supplemental cholecalciferol. Conclusions: The factors that most affected changes in serum 25(OH)D concentrations in response to cholecalciferol supplementation included sex, baseline serum 25(OH)D, supplement intake adherence, skin-covering clothes, physical activity, and season. Genetic factors did not play a major role. This trial was registered at as NCT00153816.




Additional authors:

Roberd M Bostick, Jane C Figueiredo,Robert S Bresalier, Douglas J Robertson, and Janet L Peacock