Review of fluorescence guided surgery visualization and overlay techniques

Jonathon T. Elliot, Dartmouth College
Alicia V. Dsouza, Dartmouth College
Scott Davis, Dartmouth College
Jonathan D. Olson, Dartmouth College
Keith D. Paulsen, Dartmouth College
David W. Roberts, Dartmouth College
Brian Pogue, Dartmouth College


In fluorescence guided surgery, data visualization represents a critical step between signal capture and display needed for clinical decisions informed by that signal. The diversity of methods for displaying surgical images are reviewed, and a particular focus is placed on electronically detected and visualized signals, as required for near-infrared or low concentration tracers. Factors driving the choices such as human perception, the need for rapid decision making in a surgical environment, and biases induced by display choices are outlined. Five practical suggestions are outlined for optimal display orientation, color map, transparency/alpha function, dynamic range compression, and color perception check.