Date of Award


Document Type

Thesis (Master's)

Department or Program

Master of Arts in Liberal Studies

First Advisor

Gil Raz

Second Advisor

Donald E. Pease

Third Advisor

David A. Rezvani


In 1281, under the order of Kublai Khan, the Daoist Canon and some other Daoist texts compiled by the Quanzhen Daoist sect were burned. Since Qiu Chuji’s meeting with Genghis Khan in 1221, the Quanzhen Sect enjoyed sixty-years of prosperity and its leaders been appointed as leaders of all Daoist and Buddhist sects under the Yuan Mongol dynasty. During this period, Quanzhen Sect experienced a turning point from prosperity to decline. Li Zhichang, the seventh-generation leader of the Quanzhen Sect, spread the huahu (Conversion of the Barbarians) discourse in order to suppress Buddhism. This directly affected the Mongols’ attitude towards the Quanzhen Sect. This paper aims to argue that although Li Zhichang’s strategy for propagating the “Conversion of the Barbarians” discourse was intended to suppress Buddhism, the content also projected a sense of cultural belittlement of the non-Han groups which angered the Mongol rulers, leading to the eventual decline of the Quanzhen Sect.