Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

BioMed Central Genomics


Geisel School of Medicine


Genetic alterations of transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated in the tumorigenesis of cancers. In many cancers, alteration of TFs results in aberrant activity of them without changing their gene expression level. Gene expression data from microarray or RNA-seq experiments can capture the expression change of genes, however, it is still challenge to reveal the activity change of TFs. Here we propose a method, called REACTIN (REgulatory ACTivity INference), which integrates TF binding data with gene expression data to identify TFs with significantly differential activity between disease and normal samples. REACTIN successfully detect differential activity of estrogen receptor (ER) between ER+ and ER- samples in 10 breast cancer datasets. When applied to compare tumor and normal breast samples, it reveals TFs that are critical for carcinogenesis of breast cancer. Moreover, Reaction can be utilized to identify transcriptional programs that are predictive to patient survival time of breast cancer patients.



Original Citation

Zhu M, Liu CC, Cheng C. REACTIN: regulatory activity inference of transcription factors underlying human diseases with application to breast cancer. BMC Genomics. 2013 Jul 26;14:504. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-504. PMID: 23885756; PMCID: PMC3750236.